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May 17, 2024

C&P Exam for Gulf War Syndrome: What to Expect and How to Prepare

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After filing a VA claim for a condition potentially caused or made worse by Gulf War Syndrome, you will likely be scheduled for a Compensation and Pension (C&P) exam.

A C&P exam for Gulf War Syndrome is designed to evaluate your medical diagnosis, determine if you qualify for presumptive service connection, assess the severity of symptoms, and understand any negative impacts on your work, life, and social functioning.

Gulf War Syndrome is commonly misunderstood in that you don’t get a VA rating for it on its own, but rather, it encompasses a range of unexplained illnesses and symptoms affecting many Gulf War veterans leading to conditions that can be service connected for VA disability benefits.

For example, a veteran could receive a 40% VA rating for fibromyalgia, which will appear in their account under service-connected disabilities as “Gulf War Syndrome Presumptive.”

Pro Tip: VA ratings for Gulf War Syndrome range from 0% to 100% depending on your diagnosis, severity of symptoms in terms of frequency, severity, and duration as well as negative impacts to your work, life, and social functioning.

Summary of Key Points

  • Exam Objectives: The C&P exam for Gulf War Syndrome evaluates your diagnosis, determines if you qualify for presumptive service connection, and assesses the severity and impact of your symptoms.
  • VA Disability Ratings: VA ratings for Gulf War Syndrome range from 0% to 100% depending on the (#1) diagnosis, (#2) frequency, severity, and duration of symptoms, and (#3) how the symptoms impact you in negative ways.
  • Severity of Symptoms: Be ready to discuss how your symptoms negatively affect your work, life, and social functioning.
  • Preparation Tips: Gather all relevant medical records, maintain a detailed symptom diary, and familiarize yourself with the Disability Benefits Questionnaire (DBQ) for Gulf War Syndrome (download below).

What is Gulf War Syndrome?

Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), also known as Gulf War Illness (GWI), is a chronic, multi-symptomatic disorder affecting veterans who served in the Gulf War, especially during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.

This condition includes a range of unexplained physical symptoms and illnesses that cannot be attributed to known medical conditions.

>> View our list of 200+ conditions eligible for presumptive service connection

Gulf War Syndrome Symptoms List

Veterans with Gulf War Syndrome experience various symptoms that are often presumed to be service-connected.

These symptoms fall into three main categories:

Chronic Multi-Symptom Illnesses:

  • Functional gastrointestinal disorders
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Other undiagnosed illnesses like cardiovascular disease, muscle and joint pain, and headaches

Undiagnosed Symptoms:

  • Fatigue
  • Skin symptoms
  • Headaches
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Neurological and mental symptoms
  • Respiratory symptoms
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Cardiovascular symptoms
  • Abnormal weight loss
  • Menstrual disorders
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms

Infectious Diseases:

  • Brucellosis
  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
  • Malaria
  • Tuberculosis
  • Nontyphoid salmonella
  • Shigella
  • Visceral leishmaniasis
  • West Nile Virus

Note: For service in Afghanistan, conditions must have started on or after September 19, 2001.

Potential Causes of Gulf War Syndrome

The exact cause of Gulf War Syndrome remains unclear, but possible contributors include:

  • Chemical Exposures: Pesticides, nerve agents, and toxic substances.
  • Vaccinations and Medications: Adverse effects from multiple vaccinations and preventive medications.
  • Environmental Factors: Exposure to burn pits, oil well fires, smoke, and other environmental hazards.
  • Stress and Psychological Factors: The high-stress environment and psychological toll of combat.
  • Infectious Diseases: Exposure to endemic diseases in the Gulf region.

Medical Diagnosis and Presumptive Service Connection

Diagnosing Gulf War Syndrome is challenging due to the wide range of symptoms and lack of specific diagnostic tests.

The diagnosis is often based on the veteran’s symptoms, service history, and exclusion of other potential causes.

The VA recognizes three categories for establishing service connection under 38 CFR § 3.317:

  • Undiagnosed Illnesses: Symptoms that cannot be attributed to known clinical diagnoses.
  • Medically Unexplained Chronic Multi-Symptom Illnesses (MUCMIs): Conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and functional gastrointestinal disorders.
  • Infectious Diseases: Specific infectious diseases that may have been contracted during Gulf War service.

Objectives of the C&P Exam for Gulf War Syndrome

The C&P exam for Gulf War Syndrome has three main objectives:

  • Diagnosis Confirmation: Confirm a diagnosis of a condition related to Gulf War Syndrome.
  • Presumptive Service Connection: Assess whether the condition is presumed to be service connected due to a veteran’s military service.
  • Severity of Symptoms Assessment: Evaluate the frequency, severity, and duration of the symptoms and their impact on life and work.

What to Expect During the Exam

C&P exams can be conducted in-person, via telehealth, over the phone, or through a records-only review (known as an ACE exam).

Here’s what to expect at the exam:

Documentation Review

  • Medical Records: The examiner will review your medical records related to Gulf War Syndrome, including private and VA medical records, diagnostic tests, and previous treatments.
  • Service Records: They may review your service treatment records to establish a connection between your military service and symptoms.

Detailed Questionnaire

  • You will complete a structured questionnaire, similar to the Disability Benefits Questionnaire (DBQ) for Gulf War Syndrome, covering diagnosis, frequency, duration, symptoms, and treatments.

Symptom Description

  • Pain and Discomfort: Describe the nature, location, and associated symptoms like fatigue, gastrointestinal issues, or cognitive problems.
  • Frequency and Duration: Detail how often the symptoms occur and their duration.
  • Triggers and Relief Measures: Discuss what triggers your symptoms and what provides relief.

Functional Impact Assessment

  • Assess how symptoms affect daily activities, work, social interaction, and quality of life. Provide examples of how symptoms impact your ability to perform tasks and participate in activities.

Physical Examination

  • The examiner might conduct a physical exam to rule out other conditions or assess related symptoms.

Discussion of Treatment

  • Discuss treatments you have tried or are currently using, including medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes. Mention any side effects experienced.

Questions from the Examiner

  • The examiner may ask additional questions to understand your condition better. Be honest and detailed in your responses.

Conclusion of the Exam

  • The examiner will summarize the findings and may ask for clarification or additional information. You will be informed about the next steps in the VA disability claim process, including how and when you will receive the results.

Questions a Veteran Might Be Asked at a C&P Exam for Gulf War Syndrome

Here’s a list of questions a veteran might be asked at a Gulf War Syndrome VA C&P exam based on the DBQ for Gulf War Syndrome:

Evidence Review:

Were any records reviewed for this examination? If so, which ones?

  • VA claims file (hard copy paper C-file)
  • VA e-folder (VBMS or Virtual VA)
  • CPRS
  • Other (please specify)

Symptoms and Conditions:

  • What symptoms or conditions are you claiming as related to your Gulf War service?
  • Are there any systems or areas affected by your symptoms? (e.g., skin, respiratory, digestive, musculoskeletal)

Skin and Scars:

  • Do you have any skin conditions or scars? If yes, describe them.
  • Have you experienced rashes, lesions, or other skin issues?

Respiratory System:

  • Have you experienced any respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough, shortness of breath, or wheezing?
  • Were you exposed to burn pits or other environmental hazards?

Gastrointestinal System:

  • Have you had any digestive issues such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, or constipation?
  • Have you been diagnosed with conditions like IBS, GERD, or other gastrointestinal disorders?

Musculoskeletal System:

  • Do you have muscle or joint pain? If so, where and how severe is it?
  • Have you been diagnosed with conditions like fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome?

Neurological and Psychological Symptoms:

  • Have you experienced headaches, memory problems, or other neurological symptoms?
  • Do you have any neuropsychological symptoms like anxiety, depression, or PTSD?

Sleep Disturbances:

  • Do you have trouble sleeping or experience sleep disturbances such as insomnia or sleep apnea?

Cardiovascular Symptoms:

  • Have you experienced any cardiovascular symptoms such as chest pain, palpitations, or abnormal heart rate?

General Health:

  • Have you noticed any significant weight loss or other unexplained changes in your health?
  • Do you experience chronic fatigue or unexplained tiredness?

General Physical Exam:

  • Are there any physical exam findings related to your claimed conditions?
  • Describe any abnormalities found during the physical examination.

Impact on Daily Life and Work:

  • How do your symptoms impact your ability to work?
  • Provide specific examples of how your symptoms affect your daily activities and job performance.

Other Symptoms:

  • Do you have any additional signs or symptoms not covered in previous questions?
  • Describe any other symptoms you are experiencing.


  • Is there any additional information you would like to provide regarding your symptoms or conditions?

Preparation Tips for a Gulf War Syndrome C&P Exam

Proper preparation can significantly impact the outcome of your C&P exam.

Here are some tips to help you prepare effectively:

Gather Medical Records

  • Bring all relevant medical records, including those from private doctors, VA medical centers, and hospitals.

Document Your Symptoms

  • Keep a detailed diary of your symptoms, noting dates, duration, intensity, triggers, and relief measures.
  • Record how your symptoms negatively affect your daily life and work.

Review Your Military Records

  • Identify any events during your service that could be linked to your symptoms, such as chemical exposures or injuries.

Prepare for DBQ Questions

  • Familiarize yourself with the DBQ for Gulf War Syndrome (available for download below) and be ready to discuss the frequency, severity, and duration of your symptoms.

List Medications and Treatments

  • List all medications and treatments you use or have used, including their effectiveness and side effects.

Describe Your Symptoms

  • Be ready to describe your symptoms in detail and explain their impact on your daily life.

Arrive Prepared

  • Get a good night’s sleep, eat a light meal, and take your regular medications before the exam.
  • Mentally prepare to discuss your symptoms extensively.

Examples of How Gulf War Syndrome Can Negatively Impact Your Work, Life, and Social Functioning

Gulf War Syndrome can significantly disrupt various aspects of a veteran’s life, impacting work performance, daily living activities, and social interactions.

Here are some detailed examples:


  • Reduced productivity due to fatigue and cognitive issues.
  • Increased absenteeism due to severe symptoms.
  • Impaired performance, especially in roles requiring precision or quick decision-making.


  • Disruption of daily routines and difficulty performing regular tasks.
  • Limitation of physical activities due to pain or fatigue.

Social Functioning:

  • Social withdrawal and isolation due to unpredictable symptoms.
  • Strained relationships with family and friends.
  • Reduced participation in social activities.

DBQ for Gulf War Syndrome [Download]

The DBQ for Gulf War Syndrome will be completed electronically by the C&P examiner at your exam.

We’ve made a copy available for review and download below:

C&P Examiner’s Guide to Gulf War Syndrome Medical Opinions [Download]

This guide provides comprehensive instructions for C&P examiners to conduct and document their medical opinions related to Gulf War Syndrome:

About the Author

Brian Reese
Brian Reese

Brian Reese

Brian Reese is one of the top VA disability benefits experts in the world and bestselling author of You Deserve It: The Definitive Guide to Getting the Veteran Benefits You’ve Earned (Second Edition).

Brian’s frustration with the VA claim process led him to create VA Claims Insider, which provides disabled veterans with tips, strategies, and lessons learned to win their VA disability compensation claim, faster, even if they’ve already filed, been denied, gave up, or don’t know where to start. 

As the founder of VA Claims Insider and CEO of Military Disability Made Easy, he has helped serve more than 10 million military members and veterans since 2013 through free online educational resources.

He is a former active duty Air Force officer with extensive experience leading hundreds of individuals and multi-functional teams in challenging international environments, including a combat tour to Afghanistan in 2011 supporting Operation ENDURING FREEDOM.

Brian is a Distinguished Graduate of Management from the United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, CO, and he holds an MBA from Oklahoma State University’s Spears School of Business, Stillwater, OK, where he was a National Honor Scholar (Top 1% of Graduate School class).

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